Chapter 10.22 - Off-Street Parking


City Code :: Elwood Town Ordinance :: Chapter 10.22 - Off-Street Parking

CHAPTER 10.22

OFF-STREET PARKING 
 

Sections: 
 

10.22.010 Purpose

10.22.020 General Provisions For Off-Street Parking and Loading

10.22.030 Site, Access, and Lighting Plan Required

10.22.040 Off Street Parking Schedules  

10.22.050 Reduction of Parking Requirement

10.22.060 Maximum Number of Parking Spaces

10.22.070 Design Standards for Off-Street Parking and Loading Spaces

10.22.080 Shared Parking

10.22.090 Off Site Parking

10.22.100 Parking and Parking Lot Access

10.22.110 Stacking Lanes, Number of Vehicles

10.22.120 Parking Lot Layout

10.22.130 Compact Car Design

10.22.140 Handicapped Parking

10.22.150 Landscaping and Screening

10.22.160 Lighting

10.22.170 Surfacing

10.22.180 Grading

10.22.190 Use of Required Parking Spaces

10.22.200 Storage

10.22.210 Off-Street Loading Space Design Standards  
 
 

10.22.010 Purpose 
 

The purpose of these off-street parking requirements is to reduce congestion and traffic hazards within Elwood Town by incorporating adequate, attractively-designed off-street parking and loading facilities for various land uses.  Parking areas shall be designed in such a manner that they will result in maximum efficiency, protection of public safety, provide for the special needs of the handicapped, and where appropriate, insulate surrounding land uses from adverse impacts created by such parking. 
 

29.26.020 General Provisions For Off-Street Parking and Loading  
 

  1. Applicability
 
  1. New Development:  The off street parking standards of this chapter apply to any new development and to any new use established. 
  2. Expansions and Alterations: The off street parking standards of this chapter apply when an existing structure or use is expanded or enlarged.  Additional off street parking spaces shall be required only to serve the enlarged or expanded area, not the entire building or use.  The Planning Commission may require increases in parking for non complying parking areas when found necessary to ensure adequate off street parking.
  3. Change  of  Use:   Off street  parking  shall  be  required  for  any  change  of  use  or  change of  operation that  would  result  in  a  requirement  for  more  parking  than  the  existing use.  Additional  parking  shall be required  only  in  proportion  to  the  extent  of  the change, not  for  the entire  building  or  use.
  4. Areas for deliveries and loading shall be required as a part of the site plan review to ensure that loading and deliveries do not constrain fire access, street safety, or use public streets for deliveries.
 
  1. Parking and Loading areas to be maintained:   All off-street parking and loading area within the Town shall comply with all of the standards prescribed in this Chapter, and shall be permanently maintained in good condition for the duration of the use or uses served by the facility. All paved areas shall be maintained in good repair without broken parts, potholes or litter.
 
 
 
 
 

10.22.030 Site, Access, and Lighting Plan Required 
 

All applications for a building permit shall be accompanied by a detailed site, access and lighting plan showing the required off-street parking spaces and points of access. Parking lots with less than five spaces are not required to submit a lighting plan. 
 

10.22.040 Off Street Parking Schedules   
 

A.  Off Street Parking Requirements 
 

The table below contains the minimum parking requirements for specific uses.  The maximum percentage allowed for compact spaces is also given.  Special requirements for each use are provided under the “Notes” column where appropriate.  Parking requirements for uses within the Historical Downtown should refer to section 29.05.040(D) of this chapter. 
 

 
 
 
Use
Minimum

Off-Street

Parking

Requirement

Max. %

Compact

Stalls

Allowed

 
 
 
Notes
Residential
Handicapped or Group

Home Housing

A minimum of 2 parking

spaces plus 1 parking

space for every 4

handicapped persons.

None The Planning Commission may vary off-street parking needs in relation to the number of staff/employees required and the special   needs of the residents.
Single Family Dwelling 2 spaces per unit None Parking one behind the other arrangements for all required parking is prohibited, except for visitor parking for multiple family dwellings. Minimum off-street parking shall not be located within the minimum required front yard setback.
Home Occupation     The number of parking spaces for Home Occupations shall be determined as part of the Conditional Use Permit .
Health Services
Churches, auditoriums,

Assembly Halls,

Mortuaries and other

places of public

assembly

1 space for each 6.5 feet of linear pew or 3.5 seats in an auditorium provided, however, that where a church building is designed or intended to be used by 2 congregations at the same time, an additional 50% of the minimum spaces required shall be provided.    
Commercial Day care, Preschool and Nursery Schools 
 
 
 
1 space per 300 square

feet of gross floor area.

25% If drop-off facilities are contemplated, they shall be designed to provided a continuous flow of vehicles to safely load and unload children without stacking on public streets. When drop-off facilities are provided, a reduction to the number of spaces required may be reduced as per Section 29.05.050
Hospitals 2 spaces per bed in the total facility. 25% A traffic study may be required.  Accessory units and clinics will be calculated as outlined in this Chapter.
Medical, Dental Offices

and Clinics

1 space per 200 square

feet of gross floor area.

25%  
Nursing Homes 1 space per 2.5 beds for nursing and convalescent homes. None  
 
 
 
Use
Minimum

Off-Street

Parking

Requirement

Max. %

Compact

Stalls

Allowed

 
 
 
Notes
Veterinarians and

Veterinary Hospitals

1 space per 200 square

feet of gross floor area

excluding kennel Appeal Authorityrding area.

25%  
Entertainment And Recreation
Amusement Center 1 space per 100 square

feet of floor space.

25%  
Bowling Alleys and

Billiard Halls

5 parking spaces per

alley and 2 spaces per

billiard table.

25% Ancillary uses such as restaurants shall comply with the specific requirements outlined in this Chapter.
Commercial Riding

Stables

1 space per 5 horses

Appeal Authorityrded on site.

None  
Golf Courses

Miniature Golf Courses

Driving Ranges

6 spaces per hole

3 spaces per hole

1 space per hole

25% Ancillary uses such as commercial pro shops and restaurants shall provide sufficient parking as required in this Chapter
Health Spas and  Sports Complexes. 1 space per 200 square

feet of gross floor area.

25% Ancillary uses such as restaurants to provide parking as required by this Chapter.
Movie Theaters 1 space per 4 seats 25%  
Tennis, Handball and

Racquetball facilities

3 spaces per court. 25% Ancillary uses to provide sufficient additional parking as required by this Chapter.
Commercial
Auto Repair, Service

and Auto Parts Sales

3 spaces for each service bay plus 1 space for every 300 square feet of retail sales area. 25% If towing service is provided, sufficient area shall be located on-site for temporary storage of vehicles and the tow truck.
Auto Sales 1 customer parking space per 400 square feet of gross floor area in the automobile sales area or 5 parking spaces, whichever requirement is greater. 25%  
Hotels and Motels 1 space per room where

no cooking facilities are

provided. Living units

with cooking facilities

shall provide 1.25 parking spaces per unit.

25% Ancillary uses such as restaurants or retail shops shall provide additional parking as identified for the specific use as required by this Chapter.
Auto Repair, Service

and Auto Parts Sales

3 spaces for each service bay plus 1 space for every 300 square feet of retail sales area. 25% If towing service is provided, sufficient area shall be located on-site for temporary storage of vehicles and the tow truck.
Auto Sales 1 customer parking space per 400 square feet of gross floor area in the automobile sales area or 5 parking spaces, whichever requirement is greater. 25%  
Lumber Yards and Plant Nurseries 1 space per 300 square

feet of indoor floor sales

area.

25%  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Use
Minimum

Off-Street

Parking

Requirement

Max. %

Compact

Stalls

Allowed

 
 
 
Notes
Professional Offices

and Banks

1 space per 250 square

feet of gross floor area for the first 20,000 square feet plus 1 space per 300 square feet of gross floor area in excess of 20,000 square feet.

25% Drive up windows shall provide sufficient stacking room and sufficient area for 3 spaces from teller window.
Restaurants and Fast

Food Establishments

1 space per 100 square

feet of gross floor area or 1 space for each 4 seats whichever is greater plus .5 space for each employee on the highest employment shift with a minimum of 5 spaces for employee parking.

25% Drive up windows shall provide sufficient stacking room and sufficient area for 4 spaces from place of order and 4 spaces from pick up window
Retail - Intensive

General Merchandising

including shopping

centers.

1 space per 250 square

feet of gross floor area for the first 20,000 square feet plus 1 space per 300 square feet of gross floor area in excess of 20,000 square feet.

25%  
Retail - Less Intensive:

Furniture, Carpet

1 space per 400 feet of

gross floor area.

25%  
Sports Stadiums and Arenas, Auditoriums (including school auditoriums), other places of public assembly and Clubs and Lodges having no

sleeping facilities

1 space per 4 seats and 1.3 spaces for each 100

square feet of gross floor  area used for assembly and not containing fixed  seats.

25%  
Swimming Pools

(Commercial and

Public)

1 space per each 10 persons based on capacity load. 25%  
Industrial
Manufacturing 1 space per 500 square

feet of gross floor area

devoted to manufacturing

plus required parking for

business vehicles

30% Ancillary uses such as offices are to provide parking as required by this Chapter.
Open Storage Uses in

an approved industrial

area

1 space per 5,000   square feet of open area being utilized for storage

exclusive of access, landscaping, etc.

   
Research and Development 1 space per 350 square

feet of gross floor area

plus the required parking

for business vehicles.

30%  
Truck Transfer

Companies

1 space for each 2

employees plus parking

for each truck  associated

with the business.

   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Use
Minimum

Off-Street

Parking

Requirement

Max. %

Compact

Stalls

Allowed

 
 
 
Notes
Warehousing 1 space per 1,000 square feet of gross floor area for the first 20,000 square feet devoted to

warehouse plus the

required parking for

square footage devoted

to other uses. 1 space

per 2,000 square feet for

the second 20,000

square feet. 1 space per

2,500 square feet of floor area in excess of 40,000 square feet.

  No conversions of any portion of a warehouse use to any other use shall be permitted unless the parking requirements for such other uses are met.
Other
Public Buildings and Use 1 space per 250 square feet of office space, and 1 spaces for 3.5 seating for meeting space   All public open space area may be excluded from determining the parking requirement if these areas are not used for any other use
Parking Spaces for

uses not specified

    The number of parking spaces for uses not specified herein shall be determined by the Town Staff being guided, where appropriate, by the requirements set forth herein for uses which are similar to the use not specified.  Appeals to the decision of the Town Staff are made to the Appeal Authority as designated in Chapter 29.04 of this Title.
 

B.  Rules for Computing Requirements:  The  following  rules  apply  when  computing  off street  parking  and  loading  requirements:  
 

  1. Multiple Uses:  Parking for multiple uses sharing the parking shall comply with the requirements of 10.22.080 for shared parking.
  2. Fractions:   If, in the application of the requirements of this chapter, a fractional number is obtained, any fraction will be disregarded.
  3. Area Measurements:  Unless otherwise specifically noted, all square footage based parking and loading standards are to be computed on the basis of gross floor area.
  4. Occupancy Based Standards:  For the purpose of computing parking based on employees, students, residents or occupants, calculations shall be based on the largest number of persons working on any single shift, the maximum enrollment or the maximum fire rated capacity, whichever is applicable and whichever results in the greater number of spaces
  5. Unlisted Uses:  Upon receiving a development application for a use not specifically listed in an off street parking schedule, the Town Staff shall apply the off street parking standard specified for the listed use that is deemed most similar to the proposed use or require a parking study in accordance with this chapter
 

C. Off Street Parking For Land Uses with Unique Parking Requirements:   Off street parking for land uses with unique parking requirements and uses which have widely varying parking demand characteristics, make it impossible to specify a single off street parking standard.  Uses found by the Town Staff to have unique parking requirements shall comply with the provisions of this subsection. 
 

  1. A developer proposing to develop or expand a land use with unique parking requirements shall submit a parking study that provides justification for the number of off street parking spaces proposed.
  2. The Town Staff and Town Engineer shall review this study and any other traffic engineering and planning data relevant to the establishment of an appropriate off street parking standard for the proposed use.
  3. A parking study shall include estimates of parking based on recommendations of the Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE), or other acceptable estimates as approved by the Public Works Department, and should include other reliable data collected from uses or combinations of uses that are the same as or comparable with the proposed use.  Comparability will be determined by density, scale, bulk, area, type of activity, location, or parameters of the use that may be estimated to parking requirements.
  4. The study shall document the source of data used, and methods used to develop there recommendations.  After reviewing the parking study, the Town Staff and Town Engineer shall establish a minimum off street parking standard for the proposed use.
  5. Appeals of the administrative decision may be made to the Appeal Authorityrd of Adjustment in accordance with the procedures of Chapter 10.04 of this Title.
 

10.22.050 Reduction of Parking Requirement 
 

The number of parking spaces required by these schedules may be reduced as a condition of the development review by the Planning Commission for conditional use applications or as approved by the Town Staff or designee for permitted uses if it can be demonstrated through a parking study, prepared by a traffic engineer, that the proposed use(s) would have a parking demand less than the requirements stated in this Chapter. This parking study must be validated through empirical evidence, which is acceptable to the Town Staff or designee, from similar uses.  Appeals of the decision of the Planning Commission and Town Staff are made to the Appeal Authority as outlined in Section 10.04 of this Title. 
 

10.22.060 Maximum Number of Parking Spaces 
 

In order to minimize the number of unused parking spaces, the number of parking spaces specified in this Chapter shall not be exceeded by an amount of more than twenty-five percent of the required off-street parking 
 

10.22.070 Design Standards for Off-Street Parking and Loading Spaces 
 

Except for single-family access to require off-street parking spaces shall be from a private driveway and not from a public street and shall not be designed to require vehicles to back onto a street. 
 

10.22.080 Shared Parking 
 

A.  When any land or building is under the same ownership or under a joint use agreement and is used for two or more purposes, the number of parking spaces is computed by multiplying the minimum amount of parking normally required for each land use by the appropriate percentage as shown in the following parking credit schedule for each of the five time periods shown. The number of parking spaces required is determined by totaling the resulting numbers in each column; the column total that generates the highest number of parking spaces then becomes the parking requirement. 
 

  Weekday Weekend Nighttime
Use Daytime

(6 AM – 6 PM)

Evening

(6 PM – Midnight)

Daytime

(6 AM – 6 PM)

Evening

(6 PM - Midnight)

(Midnight –

6AM)

Office/Industrial 100% 10% 10% 5% 5%
General Retail 80% 90% 100% 70% 5 %
Hotel, Motel, Inn 75% 100% 75% 100% 100 %
Restaurant 65% 100% 80% 100 % 50 %
Theater /

Entertainment

40% 100% 80% 100% 10 %
Meeting Center 50% 100% 100% 100% 10 %
Multi-Family

Residential

50% 90% 90% 90% 100 %
All Other Uses 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
 
 

B.   Neighboring property owners may share parking spaces if: 
 

  1. a permanent cross-access easement or other  recorded agreement is established;
  2. access between the properties can be gained without utilizing a public or private street; and
 

C.  The combined parking required for all properties can be met as outlined in 29.05.040 or in 29.05.080(A) when involving two or more uses. 
 

10.22.090 Off Site Parking 
 

Required parking may be located off site, if approved as an alternative parking plan and in compliance with all of the following standards: 
 

  1. Ineligible Activities: Off site parking may not be used to satisfy the off street parking standards for residential uses (except for guest parking), restaurants, convenience stores or other convenience oriented uses.  Required parking spaces reserved for persons with disabilities may not be located off site.
  2. Location: Off-site parking may be located within a 300 foot radius from the use served.  Off site parking spaces may not be separated from the use served by a street right of way with a width of more than 80 feet, unless a grade separated pedestrian walkway or other traffic control or safety device is provided.
  3. Agreement for Off Site Parking:  Off site parking requires a written agreement that shall run with the land and which shall be recorded.  A signed, notarized copy of the agreement between the owners of record shall be submitted to the Town Staff for review and approval.  Recordation of the agreement shall take place prior to the issuance of a building permit for any use to be served by the off site parking area.  An off site parking agreement may be revoked only if required off street parking spaces are provided in conformance with the provisions of this chapter.
 

10.22.100 Parking and Parking Lot Access 
 

Entrances and exits for parking facilities shall be designed to reduce traffic congestion on public streets and minimize conflicts with neighboring uses.  The principles of access management should be used to evaluate and determine adequacy of the ingress and egress to the parking facilities.  The following standard shall be provided as follows: 
 

A.  Access drives for single family dwelling: 
 

  1. Approach width for single family dwelling shall be a minimum of ten (10) feet wide and a maximum of thirty six (36) feet wide when measured at the property line. The combined width of all approaches serving a lot shall not exceed fifty (50) percent of the lot frontage.
  2. For each single family dwelling, not more than two (2) approaches shall be allowed, except corner and double frontage lots, which shall be allowed three (3) approaches. Separation between approaches shall have minimum separation of twelve (12) feet measured at the property line.
  3. Approaches shall not be allowed on corner lots within the no-view obstructing or sight obscuring triangle occurring at the intersection of the two (2) street lot lines as defined within the ordinance.
  4. Approaches shall not be located closer than five (5) feet to side or rear property line.  This shall be measured at the property line.
 

B. Standards for the width, radius, location and number of curb cuts for all uses except single family dwelling are outlined in the table below: 
 

Future

Right-of-Way Width

 
Max Curb

Cut Width

 
Minimum

Access Radius

 
Separation

from Corners*

Separation from Side/Rear Property Lines**  
Number of Curb

Cuts Allowed

<66’ 36’ 5’ 100’ 20’ 1 per 150’ of

road frontage

66’– 79’ 40’ 5’ 120’ 20’ 1 per 200’ of

road frontage

80’ and up 50’ 5’ 140’ 20’ 1 per 350’ of

road frontage

*Measurement made from the point of intersecting curb lines to near edge of driveway.

** Except to separation requirement if a shared assess is proposed under Section 10.22.100(D).

These standards do not apply to State roads.
 

C.  The Town Engineer or designee may modify the standards in the table in Section 10.22.040(B) above if sufficient proof is provided through a traffic study that the modification will be necessary for traffic movement.  The maximum driveway width shall be 50 feet. 
 

D.   Shared Access:  To reduce and limit the number of points of access along Elwood Town streets.  Shared access between adjoining parcels is strongly encouraged.  The Planning Commission may require a shared access as a condition of project approval.  When a shared access is used the adjacent property owner’s shall: 
 

  1. Record a cross easement for the approach, signed by both adjacent property owner’s and the Town, allowing both adjacent property owner’s equal and unrestricted access to the approach;
  2. The shared access shall be adequately separated to allow individual maintenance and repair.
 

E.   Delay Agreements:   The Public Works Director may enter into a recorded agreement with a property owner to defer the construction of improvements to a future date. The improvements shall be constructed within five years of the date of the agreement. In cases where the Town will be undertaking similar improvements to the same street, and such improvements have been scheduled, a longer period than five years may be approved by the Public Works Director. Improvement security may be required as a part of the delay agreement. 
 

F.   Essential Service facilities: shall not be subject to the requirements of Section 29.05.100.  The Planning Commission shall determine the appropriate arrangement of approaches for essential service facilities during the design review or conditional use review process. 
 

10.22.110 Stacking Lanes, Number of Vehicles 
 

A.  Adequate stacking or waiting lanes for those uses requiring such stacking areas shall be designed so that no obstruction shall occur at the public right-of-way.   The table on the following page shows the requirement for stacking based on the type of activity. 
 
 

Activity Type Minimum Stack Measured From
Bank teller lane   3  per  lane Teller or Window
Automated teller  machine   3  per  machine Teller
Restaurant drive through   8 Order Box*
Car wash stall, automatic   6 Entrance
Car wash stall, self service   1 Entrance
Other Determined by Town Engineer based on Traffic Study
Convenience store drive thru Prohibited
Gasoline pump island 30 feet from each end of pump island

*Stacking for at least 4 vehicles shall be provided between the order box and pick up window. 
 

B.  Standards for Design and Layout Apply To All Drive Through Facilities.

Required stacking spaces are subject to the following design and layout standards: 
 

  1. Stacking space shall be a minimum of 8 feet by 16 feet in size,
  2. Stacking spaces shall not impede on site or off site traffic movements or movements into or out of off street parking spaces,
 

Stacking spaces shall be separated from other internal driveways with raised medians, as deemed necessary by the Town Engineer for traffic movement and safety. 
 

10.22.120 Parking Lot Layout 
 

Parking lots shall be designed to provide for internal circulation so that each parking space is accessible to all other parking spaces without using a public street. All properties shall provide attractive, direct and safe pedestrian access to parking. The layout of the parking areas shall relate to building entrances. The graphic and tables on the following page shall be used to provide the minimum design standards for parking layout 
 

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Parking Lot Requirements

A = Parking Angle 

B = Stall Width  

C = Stall Length  

D = Aisle Width

E = Stall To Curb

F = Curb To Curb 
 
 
 

 
 
Standard Vehicle

Width-9' Depth-18'

  Compact Vehicle

Width-9' Depth-16'

A B C D E F   A B C D E F
10' 22' 12'* 10' 32’   10' 20' 12'* 10' 32’
30° 9' 18' 15'* 18' 51’   30° 9' 16' 15'* 15' 45’
45°